Cryopreservation is a technique in which sperms, eggs and embryos are frozen at a sub-zero temperature to preserve them for future when the need arises.
There are 3 types of Cryopreservation in IVF spectrum:
Sperm are frozen to preserve because of a string of reasons:
develop sperm bank
donate stored sperm
For back up to use it during the treatment if the male partner is unable to ejaculate on the day of egg retrieval
to preserve the male infertility I.e.Prior to Cancer treatment which might adversely affect fertility
Retrieved sperms from epididymis (PESA) or testes (TESA)
If sperm are frozen for the impending treatment of the donor, the storage period is usually 1 year. For the pre-chemotherapy storage, the duration is mostly of 10 years which can be extended in certain circumstances.
Eggs Cryopreservation is for women who are about to undergo medical treatment such as cancer etc. which may affect her ability to produce eggs in the future. This technique is also useful for women who are career-oriented and does not want early motherhood. Eggs are frozen within few hours of collection through the standard freezing process. Later, when women are ready to be pregnant, the frozen eggs are thawed, fertilized with the husbands’ sperms and resultant embryo is implanted in the uterus.
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Sperm Donation: Donating sperm is considered one of the noblest causes a man can undertake. When the male partner has zilch sperm or his sperm are of low-quality, they need some other man who is willing to donate sperm which would fuse with eggs of the female partner to form an embryo. That embryo would be implanted in the womb to produce a healthy child after 9 months.
Egg Donation: When female partner is unable to produce eggs due to various reasons like menopause, premature ovarian failure or age factor, the infertile couple seeks a woman who would donate eggs in lieu of a sum of money. . The eggs are fertilised and implanted in the womb of the desired mother. Thereafter the children are born in a natural manner. The desired mother has to undergo two to three sessions of hormonal therapy before obtaining the eggs from the donor woman. It is called Hormonal Replacement Technique. This therapy is used to determine whether the womb of a woman is competent for implantation.
Embryo Donation: When both the male partner and the female partners are infertile, they opt for embryo donation. In this, the embryo is developed by fusing the sperm and eggs of the donor couple and the embryo is implanted in the uterus of female partner. The couple who are donating the sperm and the eggs undergo a
series of tests to determine any medical ailment or the quality of sperm & eggs.
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